Zaburzenia hiperkinetyczne z zaburzeniami koncentracji uwagi u dzieci – zagrożenia środowiskowe
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Instytut Medycyny Pracy i Zdrowia Środowiskowego w Sosnowcu
Państwowa Medyczna Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa w Opolu* *Wydział Pielęgniarstwa
Katedra i Zakład Higieny Uniwersytetu Medycznego we Wrocławiu Kierownik: prof. dr hab. K. Pawlas
Corresponding author
Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka   

Instytut Medycyny Pracy i Zdrowia Środowiskowego ul. Kościelna 13, 41-200 Sosnowiec tel. 32 634 12 00
Med Srod. 2016;19(4):53-58
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the role of environmental factors in etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the light of related literature. ADHD is a behavioral disorder often diagnosed among children in the 20th century. In many cases it can persist into adulthood. ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by behavioral symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Hyperactivity tends to decline over childhood, while symptoms of inattention tend to be more persistent. ADHD affects 8-12% of children worldwide and causes impairment in school performance, intellectual and occupational functioning, and social skills. Various twin studies have highlighted the highly genetic nature of ADHD. It has been currently shown that various environmental risk factors increase the incidence of childhood ADHD. Several biological, psychosocial and chemical factors have been proposed as risk factors for ADHD, among them low birth weight, maternal obesity and poor health, stress and depression, smoking during pregnancy, antepartum haemorrhage, and prenatal exposure to alcohol, heavy metals, organophosphorus pesticides and phthalates. All these risk factors can contribute to the incidence of ADHD in organisms with genetic predisposition.
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