Near visual work and low physical activity as the main risk factors for myopia
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Wydział Podstawowych Problemów Techniki Politechniki Wrocławskiej, Polska
Szkoła Doktorska Śląski Uniwersytet Medyczny, Polska
Marek Wojczyk   

Szkoła Doktorska Śląski Uniwersytet Medyczny, Poniatowskiego 15, 40-055, Katowice, Polska
Med Srod. 2022;25(3-4):77–81
Introduction and objective:
Myopia is one of the most common refractive errors of the optical system of the eye. The most intensive development of myopia occurs in children, which depends on genetic and environmental factors. Due to technological progress and a change in lifestyle to one which is less active, as has been observed in recent years, an everincreasing number of people are diagnosed with myopia. The deepening of myopia is largely due to environmental factors, such as: too intense near work, insufficient physical activity, inadequate diet, lifestyle and inadequate correction of vision defects. The aim of the study is to present and discuss the main environmental factors impacting on the development and progression of myopia.

Abbreviated description of the state of knowledge:
Visual effort at close range is the most important modifiable risk factor for developing myopia. The intensity and nature of near work is of particular importance. An increase in the frequency of using mobile devices in recent years is especially important for the emergence of myopia in children. Another risk factor is low outdoor physical activity. Sufficient lighting and limiting the accommodative work of the eye during physical activity in the open air exerts a prophylactic effect in the context of the development of myopia.

Frequent necessity for near work should be combined with the hygiene of visual work in order to minimize the risk of development or progression of myopia.

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