Osiągnięcia szkolne chłopców z dolnego Śląska w świetle stężenia ołowiu we krwi
More details
Hide details
Departament of Biostructure, University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw. Chairwoman: Prof. Z. Ignasiak MD, PhD
Corresponding author
Grzegorz Żurek   

Department of Biostructure University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw 35 al. I.J. Paderewskiego 51-612 Wrocław tel. +48 71 347 3366
Med Srod. 2012;15(1)
Research conducted in many research centers all over the world indicate health threats resulting from the presence of lead in the blood gradually decreases to the permissible amount. Lead accumulation in a living organism results in adverse changes in different body systems, symptoms of which include various behavioral changes. They can be reflected in grades obtained by the child at school. The aim of this paper was to establish whether the blood lead level diversify the boys in the respect of their school performance during consecutive years of primary education. The amount of lead in blood of 94 boys at the age of 10 has been measured; subsequently, the group of subjects was divided into two subgroups; the first one (termed in this paper „L”) comprised students whose Pb-B level was lower than 6 μg/dl (4,846 μg/dl on average) and the second one (termed „H”) comprised boys whose blood level exceeded 6 μg/dl (9,256 μg/dl on average). Academic performance in the arts, scientific subjects, geography and natural science in respective groups was assessed. Said procedure was replicated in respective subgroups after a year when the subjects were 11 years old. It was ascertained that the academic performance of the boys with higher blood lead levels deteriorated in scientific subjects and tended to worsen also in other school subject groups. Performance of the students whose blood lead level was lower in the initial examination remained unchanged or improved.
Bellinger D.C.: The neuropsychological toxicity of lead exposure in children. Materiały z Międzynarodowej Konferencji Zdrowie dzieci w zagrożonym ekologicznie środowisku, Legnica 2004 [In Polish].
Ignasiak Z., Sławińska T., Rożek K., Malina R.B., Little B.B.: Blood lead level and physical fitness of schoolchildren in the copper basin of south-western Poland: indirect effects through growth stunting. Ann Hum Biol 2007; 34, 3, 329–343.
Kim B.N., Hong Y.C., Shin M.S., Yoo H.J., Kim J.W., Bhang S.Y., Cho S.C.: Co-exposure to environmental lead andmanganese affects the intelligence of school-aged children. Neurotoxicology 2009; 30 (4), 564–71.
Langauer-Lewowicka H., Pawlas K.: Kadm – zagrożenia środowiskowe. Med Srodow 2010; 13, 2, 75–79. [In Polish].
Strugała-Stawik H., Rudkowski Z., Pastuszek B., Morawiec K.: Biomonitoring ołowiu we krwi u dzieci – krótkie podsumowanie badań z lat 1991–2009. Med Srodow 2010; 13,2, 11–14 [In Polish].
Grant L.D., Davis J.M.: Effects of low-levelead exposure on paediatric neurobehavioral development: current findings and future directions (w:) Smith M.A., Grant L.D., Sors A.I. (ed.): Lead exposure and child development. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. 1989.
Bellinger DC.: Very low lead exposures and children’s neurodevelopment. Curr Opin Pediatr 2008; 20(2), 172–177.
Brockhaus A., Coller W., Dolgner R.: Exposure to lead and cadmium of children living in different areas of North- West Germany: Results of Biological Monitoring Studies 1982–1986. In Arch Occup Environ Health 1988; 60 (3), 211– 222.
Hansen O.N., Trillingsgaard A., Besse I., Lyngbye T., Grandjean D.: Neuropsychological profile of children in relation to dentine lead level and socioeconomic group (in:) Smith M.A., Grant L.D., Sors A.I. (ed.): Lead exposure and child development. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. 1989.
Carlisle J.C., Dowling K.C., Siegel D.M., Alexeeff G.V.: 2009 A blood lead benchmark for assessing risks from childhood lead exposure. J Environ Sci Health. Part A: Tox/Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2009; 44 (12), 1200–1208.
Roy A., Bellinger D.C., Hu H., Schwartz J., Ettinger A.S., Wright R.O., Bouchard M., Palaniappan K., Balakrishnan K.: Lead exposure and behavior among young children in Chennai, India. Environ Health Perspect 2009; 117 (10),1607-1611.
Min M.O., Singer L.T., Kirchner H.L., Minnes S., Short E., Hussain Z., Nelson S.: Cognitive development and lowlevel lead exposure in poly-drug exposed children. Neurotoxicol Teratol 2009; 31 (4), 225–231.
Niemierko B.: Ocenianie szkolne bez tajemnic. WSiP Warszawa, 2002; p. 85–105 [In Polish].
Bereźnicki F.: Dydaktyka kształcenia ogólnego. Oficyna Wydawnicza „Impuls”, Kraków, 2004; p. 413 [In Polish].
Needleman H.L.: Lead at low dose and the behaviour of children. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl 1983; 303, 26–37.
Norska-Borówka I., Franiczek W., Moczia K.: Wpływ metali ciężkich na czynności psychiczne dzieci. Ann Acad Med Siles Suppl 1997; 32, 24, 173–177 [In Polish].
Canfield R.L., Henderson C.R., Cory-Slechta D.A., Cox C., Jusko T.A., Lanphear B.P.: Intellectual impairment in children with blood lead concentration below 10 μg/dl. N Eng J Med 2003; 348 (16), 1517–1526.
Karpińska A.: Drugoroczność – pedagogiczne wyzwanie dla współczesności. TRANS HUMANA, Białystok, 69, 1999.
Isaacs E.B., Morley R., Lucas A.: Early diet and general cognitive outcome at adolescence in children born at or below 30 weeks gestation. J Pediatr 2009; 155 (2), 229– 234.
Konopnicki J.: Powodzenia i niepowodzenia szkolne. PZWS Warszawa 1996 [In Polish].
Żurek G.: Uwarunkowania rozwoju morfofunkcjonalnego dzieci wiejskich stopniem skażenia środowiska bytowego. Praca doktorska AWF Wrocław, 2007 [In Polish].
Oakes J.: Opportunities, achievements and choice: Woman and minority students in science and mathematics. Rev Res Educ 1990, 16, 153–222.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top