PL EN
REVIEW PAPER
Unveiling the nexus: the intersection of environmental medicine and mental health in the era of climate change
 
More details
Hide details
1
Medical University, Wrocław, Poland
 
2
University Clinical Hospital, Wrocław, Poland
 
 
Corresponding author
Jakub Kobiałka   

University Clinical Hospital, Wrocław, Poland
 
 
Med Srod. 2023;26(1-2):32–38
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Introduction and objective:
The article delves into the intricate relationship between environmental medicine and mental health, highlighting the interconnecting aspects in the face of the growing climate crisis. The aim of the study is to examine the impact of climate change on mental health, explore existing interventions, and propose comprehensive strategies to address this significant issue.

State of Knowledge:
Recent research has revealed profound implications of climate change on mental health. Rising temperatures, extreme weather events, and environmental degradation contribute to increased psychological stress and vulnerability among affected populations. Individuals with pre-existing mental health disorders are particularly at risk. Promoting interventions and educational initiatives for key stakeholders, such as healthcare leaders, policy makers, educators, and mental health specialists, is essential. Integrating mental health aspects into climate actions can yield benefits for both environmental protection and psychological well-being.

Conclusion:
The nexus between environmental medicine and mental health in the era of climate change necessitates a holistic approach. By raising awareness, enhancing institutional capabilities, and implementing innovative interventions, we can mitigate the mental health burden resulting from climate-related disasters. Adopting sustainable policies and practices is crucial. A collective effort is indispensable to forge a more resilient future for the mental health of our planet and communities. Safeguarding both the health of our planet and the well-being of individuals is our shared responsibility, one that we must undertake.

 
REFERENCES (67)
1.
Lawrence E, Thompson R, Fontana G, et al. The Impact of Climate Change on Mental Health and Emotional Wellbeing – Current Evidence and Implications for Policy and Practice. Grantham Institute Briefing paper No 36, 2021, pp 1–36. https://doi.org/10.25561/88568.
 
2.
WHO. Mental health: massive scale – up of resources needed if global targets are to be met. [accessed 25 Jan 2021] Available from: www.who.int/mental_health/evidence/atlas/atlas_2017_web_note/en/.
 
3.
WHO. Fact Sheet on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): Health Targets. 2018. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/hand....
 
4.
Romanello M, McGushin A, Di Napoli C, et al. The 2021 Report of the Lancet Countdown on Health and Climate Change: Code Red for a Healthy Future. Lancet. 2021:1619–1662. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-....
 
5.
IPCC. Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Available from: https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar6....
 
6.
Burke SEL, Sanson AV, Van Hoorn J. The Psychological Effects of Climate Change on Children. Current Psychiatry Reports. Curr Med Group LLC 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920....
 
7.
WHO. Fact Sheet on Mental health. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/....
 
8.
Rehm J, Shield KD. Global Burden of Disease and the Impact of Mental and Addictive Disorders. Current Psychiatry Reports. Curr Med Group 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920....
 
9.
Arias D, Saxena S, Ephane Verguet S. Quantifying the Global Burden of Mental Disorders and Their Economic Value. E Clin Med. 2022;54:101675. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.
 
10.
Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation. Global Health Data Exchange (GHDx). Accessed 14 May 2022. Available from: https://vizhub.healthdata.org/....
 
11.
WHO. Fact Sheet on Mental disorders. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/....
 
12.
Solmi M, Radua J, Olivola M, et al. Age at Onset of Mental Disorders Worldwide: Large-Scale Meta-Analysis of 192 Epidemiological Studies. Mol Psychiatry. 2022;281–295. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380....
 
13.
Fiorillo A, Sartorius N. Mortality Gap and Physical Comorbidity of People with Severe Mental Disorders: The Public Health Scandal. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2021;20(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12991....
 
14.
Trautmann S, Rehm J, Wittchen H. The Economic Costs of Mental Disorders. 2016;17(9):1245–1249. https://doi.org/10.15252/embr.....
 
15.
Asselmann E, Wittchen HU, Lieb R, et al. Sociodemographic, Clinical, and Functional Long-Term Outcomes in Adolescents and Young Adults with Mental Disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2018;137(1):6–17. https://doi.org/10.1111/acps.1....
 
16.
Essau CA, Lewinsohn PM, Olaya B, et al. Anxiety Disorders in Adolescents and Psychosocial Outcomes at Age 30. J Affect Disord. 2014;163:125–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.....
 
17.
Copeland WE, Wolke D, Shanahan L, et al. Adult Functional Outcomes of Common Childhood Psychiatric Problems a Prospective, Longitudinal Study. JAMA Psychiatry. 2015;72(9):892–899. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaps....
 
18.
Copeland WE, Angold A, Shanahan L, et al. Longitudinal Patterns of Anxiety from Childhood to Adulthood: The Great Smoky Mountains Study. J Am Academy Child Adolescent Psych. 2014;21–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac....
 
19.
European Comission. Eurobarometer Survey: Europeans consider climate change to be the most serious problem facing the world. Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/commissio....
 
20.
Clayton S, Karazsia BT. Development and Validation of a Measure of Climate Change Anxiety. J Environ Psychol. 2020;69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenv....
 
21.
Masson-Delmotte V, Zhai P, Pörtner H-O, et al. Global Warming of 1.5°C An IPCC Special Report on the Impacts of Global Warming of 1.5°C above Pre-Industrial Levels and Related Global Greenhouse Gas Emission Pathways, in the Context of Strengthening the Global Response to the Threat of Climate Change, Sustainable Development, and Efforts to Eradicate Poverty Summary for Policymakers Edited by Science Officer Science Assistant Graphics Officer Working Group I Technical Support Unit.
 
22.
Hayes K, Poland B. Addressing Mental Health in a Changing Climate: Incorporating Mental Health Indicators into Climate Change and Health Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessments. Intern J Environ Res Public Health. MDPI AG 2018. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph....
 
23.
Berry HL, Bowen K, Kjellstrom T. Climate Change and Mental Health: A Causal Pathways Framework. Int J Public Health. 2010;55(2):123–132. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038....
 
24.
Palinkas LA, Wong M. Global Climate Change and Mental Health. Current Opinion in Psychology. Elsevier BV. 2020;12–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cops....
 
25.
Hwong AR, Wang M, Khan H, et al. Climate Change and Mental Health Research Methods, Gaps, and Priorities: A Scoping Review. The Lancet Planetary Health. 2022: pp e281–e291. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2542-....
 
26.
Charlson F, Ali S, Benmarhnia T, et al. Climate Change and Mental Health: A Scoping Review. Public Health. 2021;18:4486. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph.
 
27.
Liu J, Varghese B M, Hansen A, et al. Is There an Association between Hot Weather and Poor Mental Health Outcomes? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Environ International. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envi....
 
28.
Thompson R, Hornigold R, Page L, et al. Associations between High Ambient Temperatures and Heat Waves with Mental Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review. Public Health. 2018;161:171–191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe....
 
29.
Bundo M, de Schrijver E, Federspiel A, et al. Ambient Temperature and Mental Health Hospitalizations in Bern, Switzerland: A 45-Year Time-Series Study. PLoS One, 2021, 16 (10 October 2021). https://doi.org/10.1371/journa....
 
30.
Guerreiro SB, Dawson RJ, Kilsby C, et al. Future Heat-Waves, Droughts and Floods in 571 European Cities. Environ Res., 2018;13(3). https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9....
 
31.
European Academies’ Science Advisory Council. Extreme Weather Events in Europe Preparing for Climate Change Adaptation: An Update on EASAC’s 2013 Study, 2013.
 
32.
Elsner JB. Continued Increases in the Intensity of Strong Tropical Cyclones. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. Am Meteorol Soc. 2020: pp E1301–E1303. https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D....
 
33.
Cruz J, White PCL, Bell A, Coventry PA. Effect of Extreme Weather Events on Mental Health: A Narrative Synthesis and Meta-Analysis for the UK. Inter J Environ Res Public Health. MDPI AG 2020;1–17. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph....
 
34.
Lamond JE, Joseph RD, Proverbs DG. An Exploration of Factors Affecting the Long Term Psychological Impact and Deterioration of Mental Health in Flooded Households. Environ Res. 2015;140:325–334. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envr....
 
35.
Weilnhammer V, Schmid J, Mittermeier I, et al. Extreme Weather Events in Europe and Their Health Consequences – A Systematic Review. Inter J Hygiene Environ Health. Elsevier GmbH April 1, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhe....
 
36.
Jackson L, Devadason CA. Climate Change, Flooding and Mental Health Report from the Secretariat of the Rockefeller Foundation Economic Council on Planetary Health Cover Photo: Flooding in Bangkok, Thailand (Adobe Stock) Climate Change, Flooding and Mental Health; 2019.
 
37.
Barkin JL, Buoli M, Curry CL, et al. Effects of Extreme Weather Events on Child Mood and Behavior. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. John Wiley and Sons Inc July 1, 2021;785–790. https://doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.1....
 
38.
Sprague CM, Kia-Keating M, Felix E, et al. Youth Psychosocial Adjustment Following Wildfire: The Role of Family Resilience, Emotional Support, and Concrete Support. Child Youth Care Forum. 2015;44(3):433–450. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566....
 
39.
La Greca AM, Silverman WK, Lai B, et al. Hurricane-Related Exposure Experiences and Stressors, Other Life Events, and Social Support: Concurrent and Prospective Impact on Children’s Persistent Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2010;78(6):794–805. https://doi.org/10.1037/a00207....
 
40.
Poulsen KM, Mcdermott BM, Wallis J, et al. School-Based Psychological Screening in the Aftermath of a Disaster: Are Parents Satisfied and Do Their Children Access Treatment? J Trauma Stress. 2015;28(1);69–72. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.21....
 
41.
Lewis KM, Langley AK, Jones RT. Impact of Coping Efficacy and Acculturation on Psychopathology in Adolescents Following a Wildfire. J Child Fam Stud. 2015;24(2):317–329. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826....
 
42.
WHO. Mental Health and Climate Change: Policy Brief Key Points, 2022. Available from: https://www.who.int/publicatio... [access 19 Jul 2023].
 
43.
Munro A, Kovats RS, Rubin GJ, et al. Effect of Evacuation and Displacement on the Association between Flooding and Mental Health Outcomes: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of UK Survey Data. Lancet Planet Health 2017;1(4):e134–e141. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2542-....
 
44.
Yazd SD, Wheeler SA, Zuo A. Key Risk Factors Affecting Farmers’ Mental Health: A Systematic Review. Inter J Environ Res Public Health. MDPI AG December 1, 2019. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph....
 
45.
American Psychological Association. Stress in America: Generation Z, 2018. Available from: https://www.apa.org/news/press... [access 21 Jun 2023].
 
46.
World Meteorogical Organization. Climate Risk and Early Warning Systems (CREWS). Available from: https://public.wmo.int/en/clim....
 
47.
Jennings N, Fecht D, De Matteis S. Mapping the Co-Benefits of Climate Change Action to Issues of Public Concern in the UK: A Narrative Review. The Lancet Planetary Health. 2020;e424–e433. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2542-....
 
48.
WHO. Operational Framework for Building Climate Resilient Health Systems. Available from: https://www.who.int/publicatio....
 
49.
Reifels L, Pietrantoni L, Prati G, et al. Lessons Learned about Psychosocial Responses to Disaster and Mass Trauma: An International Perspective. Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2013;4(SUPPL.). https://doi.org/10.3402/ejpt.v....
 
50.
Walinski A, Sander J, Gerlinger G, et al. The Effects of Climate Change on Mental Health. Deutsches Arzteblatt international. NLM (Medline) 2023;117–124. https://doi.org/10.3238/arzteb....
 
51.
Bistricky SL, Long LJ, Lai BS, et al. Surviving the Storm: Avoidant Coping, Helping Behavior, Resilience and Affective Symptoms around a Major Hurricane-Flood. J Affect Disord. 2019;257:297–306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.....
 
52.
Connerton CS, Wooton AK. Building Community Resilience to Mitigate Mental Health Effects of Climate Change. Creat Nurs. 2019;25(3):e9–e14. https://doi.org/10.1891/1078-4....
 
53.
Monsell A, Krzanowski J, Page L, et al. What Mental Health Professionals and Organisations Should Do to Address Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. BJPsych Bulletin. 2021;45:215–221. doi:10.1192/bjb.2021.17.
 
54.
NHS England. Green social prescribing [Internet]. [cited 2021 Apr 21]. Available from: https://www. england.nhs.uk/personalisedcare/social-prescribing/ green-social-prescribing/).
 
55.
Kim EJ. Frames and Games: Testing a Public Health Orientation to Climate Adaptation Planning Signature Redacted; 2018.
 
56.
Baudon P, Jachens L. A Scoping Review of Interventions for the Treatment of Eco-Anxiety. Inter J Environ Res Public Health. 2021. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph....
 
57.
Carey IM, Anderson HR, Atkinson RW, et al. Are Noise and Air Pollution Related to the Incidence of Dementia? A Cohort Study in London, England. BMJ Open. 2018;8(9). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjope....
 
58.
Hornsey MJ, Fielding KS. A Cautionary Note about Messages of Hope: Focusing on Progress in Reducing Carbon Emissions Weakens Mitigation Motivation. Global Environ Change, 2016;39:26–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloe....
 
59.
Tcymbal A, Demetriou Y, Kelso A, et al. Effects of the Built Environment on Physical Activity: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies Taking Sex/Gender into Account. Environ Health Prev Med. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12199....
 
60.
Henderson SB, McLean KE, Lee MJ, et al. Analysis of Community Deaths during the Catastrophic 2021 Heat Dome. Environ Epidemiol. 2022;6(1); E189. https://doi.org/10.1097/EE9.00....
 
61.
Mushangwe S, Astell-Burt T, Steel D, et al. Ethnic Inequalities in Green Space Availability: Evidence from Australia. Urban For Urban Green, 2021, 64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug....
 
62.
Lucy T, Zamperoni V, Pollard A, et al. Tackling Social Inequalities to Reduce Mental Health Problems: How Everyone Can Flourish Equally A Mental Health Foundation Report Tackling Social Inequalities to Reduce Mental Health Problems, 2020.
 
63.
Public Health England. UCL Institute of Health Equity. Local Action on Health Inequalities; 2014. Available from: https://assets.publishing.serv... [access 20 Jun 2023].
 
64.
Singh A, Daniel L, Baker E, et al. Housing Disadvantage and Poor Mental Health: A Systematic Review. Am J Prev Med. 2019:262–272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amep....
 
65.
Friel S, Berry H, Dinh H, O’brien L, et al. The impact of drought on the association between food security and mental health in a nationally representative Australian sample, 2014. Available: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1... [access 24 Jun 2023].
 
66.
Montgomery D. R., Biklé A, Archuleta R, et al. Soil Health and Nutrient Density: Preliminary Comparison of Regenerative and Conventional Farming. PeerJ, 2022, 10. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.....
 
67.
United Nations. Framework Convention on Climate Change. Just Transition of the Workforce, and the Creation of Decent Work and Quality Jobs. Available from: https://unfccc.int/documents/2... [access 25 Jun 2023].
 
eISSN:2084-6312
ISSN:1505-7054