In the urban environment particulate matter has the greatest impact on human health. Health effects depend on its concentration in the air, duration of exposure, and the size of the population exposed. This effect is exerted through both lifetime exposure to excessive concentrations of air pollutants, and as short-term exposure leading to sudden deterioration of the state of health. Polish cities, including Wrocław, are characterized by very poor air quality, which undoubtedly has a measurable impact on the health of inhabitants in the long and short terms. The aim of the study was to determine how short-term exposure to the concentration of suspended particulate matter shapes the risk of occurrence of emergency health conditions of cardiovascular and respiratory origin, based on registers of ambulance emergency calls in Wrocław, during 2009–2013. The risk was analyzed in the form of ecological study using time series analysis. The study showed that calls for the ambulance emergency service due to cardiovascular and respiratory risk increased together with a rise in air pollution with particulate matter. An increase in the concentration of particulate matter creates special risk for people aged over 65 (65+).
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