Cervical cancer – risk factors and new opportunities for prevention in Poland
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Faculty of Medical Sciences in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland
Prof. K. Gibiński University Clinical Center of the Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland
Students' Scientific Society, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland
The Hospital of the Bonifratres of St. John Grand in Cracow, Poland
Corresponding author
Jakub Rybak   

Wydział Nauk Medycznych w Katowicach, Śląski Uniwersytet Medyczny
Med Srod. 2023;26(3-4):109-113
Introduction and objective:
Cervical cancer is the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer among women worldwide. In 2020 alone, there were more than 604,000 new cases of this cancer, with a total of more than 340,000 deaths. Despite visible improvements, cervical cancer is still a major global problem. The aim of this review is to analyze the key risk factors associated with the development of cervical cancer, evaluate existing prevention method, and present new opportunities for prevention in Poland.

Brief description of the state of knowledge:
The main risk factor for cervical cancer is HPV infection. Other factors, such as HIV and Chlamydia Trachomatis infection, oral contraceptives, smoking and multiple sexual contacts, also predispose to the development of this cancer. The recurrence of the disease often depends on the presence of a history of miscarriage, tclinical severity and the treatment used. Prevention includes HPV vaccination, population-based cytological screening of women and HPV testing. In June 2023, Poland enabled the possibility of free HPV vaccination for children aged 12 and 13.

Cervical cancer remains a major challenge for modern medicine. Statistics have improved significantly in recent years due to the introduction of immunization and greater availability of screening tests. The free vaccination programme in Poland is another step toward developing primary prevention in our country. It is hoped that the situation will also improve in the poorer countries of the world.

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