PRACA POGLĄDOWA
Molekularne podstawy toksyczności ołowiu
 
Więcej
Ukryj
1
Department of Internal Medicine, Occupational Diseases and Hypertension, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska 213, PL 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland Head: prof. dr hab. n. med. Grzegorz Mazur
2
Department of Hygiene, Wroclaw Medical University, Mikulicza-Radeckiego 7, PL 50-368 Wroclaw, Poland Head: prof. dr hab. n. med. Krystyna Pawlas
 
Med Srod. 2018;21(4):44–62
 
SŁOWA KLUCZOWE
STRESZCZENIE ARTYKUŁU
Ołów jest metalem szeroko rozpowszechnionym w środowisku, głównie ze względu na szerokie zastosowanie w wielu gałęziach przemysłu. Ołów charakteryzuje się wysokim stopniem toksyczności dla żywych organizmów, wpływając na wiele narządów i układów narządów, w tym na ośrodkowy układ nerwowy, układ hemopoetyczny, układ krążenia, system odporności, wątrobę i nerki. Badania przeprowadzone w ostatnich latach umożliwiły ocenę licznych szlaków metabolicznych odpowiedzialnych za toksyczność ołowiu. W niniejszym opracowaniu przedstawiono aktualne dane dotyczące podstawowych mechanizmów patologii molekularnej związków ołowiu: powstawanie stresu oksydacyjnego i zmian w materiale genetycznym, modyfikacje szlaków przekaźników nerwowych w mózgu, nieprawidłowości w funkcjonowaniu układu odpornościowego oraz zmiany w metabolizmie krwinek czerwonych. Podsumowując, należy zauważyć, że zróżnicowanie mechanizmów molekularnych toksyczności ołowiu, skutkujące zróżnicowaniem biologicznych efektów narażenia, powoduje że narażenie na ołów nadal stanowi poważne wyzwanie dla medycyny środowiskowej i medycyny pracy.

Lead represents a metal widespread in the environment, mainly due to its broad application in several branches of industry. It represents an extremely toxic an extremely toxic agent for living organisms, affecting several systems and organs, including central nervous system, hemopoetic system, circulatory and immune systems, liver and kidneys. The studies conducted in the last years enabled o evaluate numerous metabolic pathways responsible for lead toxicity. In the present study the actual data on the basic molecular pathology of lead compounds toxicity were presented: generation of oxidative stress and lesions in genetic material, modifications of neurotransmitters pathways in brain, abnormalities in immune system functioning and changes in metabolism of red cells. Summing up the above we should note that differentiation of molecular mechanisms in lead toxicity, resulting in multiple biological effects of the exposure, causes that the exposure continues to pose a significant challenge for environmental medicine and occupational medicine.
 
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