RESEARCH PAPER
Environmental Factors and Vitamin D Status in Polish middle-aged women
 
More details
Hide details
1
Zakład Toksykologii i Bezpieczeństwa Żywności Instytut Medycyny Wsi im. Witolda Chodźki, Lublin, Polska
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Grzegorz Raszewski   

Zakład Toksykologii i Bezpieczeństwa Żywności Instytut Medycyny Wsi im. Witolda Chodźki, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-090, Lublin, Polska
 
Med Srod. 2019;22(1-2):20–23
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Objectives:
The aim of this study was to investigate the vitamin D levels in a population of middle-aged of women residing in the south-eastern part of Poland. Environmental factors (age, education, place of residence and BMI) that could affect vitamin D levels in a population of studied women were also examined.

Material and methods:
The study was conducted at the Institute of Rural Health in Lublin, Poland, in a study group of women aged 45–65 years from the south-eastern part of the country. Serum lipids were determined using an automatic biochemistry analyzer and levels of 25(OH)D were measured using the 25OHD EIA assay Kits. Significance of the differences in quantitative characteristics was investigated using analysis of Man-Whitney test. Univariate correlations between the levels of 25(OH)D and variables were analyzed using the non-parametric Spearman test.

Results:
The average of 25(OH)D level in the studied participants was 25.7±14.4 ng/L; more than 59% of participants had vitamin D deficiency. In particular, the mean 25(OH)D level in group of women with vitamin D deficiency was 14.7±6.1 ng/L. The mean age of the patients was 53.9±5.2 years; average age range – 45–65 years. BMI averaged 26.1 ± 4.8 kg/m2. This was a highly educated group with an average of 12.7 ± 3.6 years of education, who lived mainly in towns (56.8%). Studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency in healthy middle-aged Polish women is significantly related to BMI and education. In the general population, no significant relationship was found between environmental factors (age, education, place of residence and BMI) and vitamin D levels.

Conclusions:
Vitamin D supplementation is recommended for middle-aged women.

 
REFERENCES (13)
1.
Cesari M, Incalzi RA, Zamboni V, Pahor M. Vitamin D hormone: a multitude of actions potentially influencing the physical function decline in older persons. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2011; 11(2): 133–42.
 
2.
DeLuca H. Overview of general physiologic features and functions of vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80 Supp l:1689S-96.
 
3.
Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2007; 357: 266–81.
 
4.
Aleteng Q, Zhao L, Lin H, Xia M, Ma H, Gao J, et al. Optimal Vitamin D Status in a Middle-Aged and Elderly Population Residing in Shanghai, China. Med Sci Monit. 2017; 23: 6001–6011.
 
5.
Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA. Guidelines for prevent ing and treating vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency revisited. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 97(4): 1153–58.
 
6.
Malesa-Ciećwierz M, Usydus Z. Vitamin D: can fish food-based solutions be used for reduction of vitamin D deficiency in Poland? Nutrition. 2015 Jan; 31(1): 187–92.
 
7.
Parva NR, Tadepalli S, Singh P, Qian A, Joshi R, Kandala H, Nookala VK, Cheriyath P. Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Associated Risk Factors in the US Population (2011–2012). Cureus. 2018, 5;10(6):e2741.
 
8.
Kołodziejczyk M., Stacherzak-Pawlik J. Stężenie 25-hydroksywitaminy D w surowicy u kobiet w wieku pre- i pomenopauzalnym. Diagn Lab. 2017; 53(2): 85–90.
 
9.
Hutchinson MS, Grimnes G, Joakimsen RM. Low serum 25-hydroxyvita-min D levels are associated with increased all-cause mortality risk in a gen eral population: The Tromso study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2010; 162(5): 935–42.
 
10.
Delle Monache S, Di Fulvio P, Iannetti E, Valerii L, Capone L, Nespoli MG, et al. Body mass index represents a good predictor of vitamin D status in women independently from age. Clin Nutr. 2019; 38(2): 829–834].
 
11.
Darmon N, Drewnowski A. Does social class predict diet quality? Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 87(5): 1107–17.
 
12.
Tønnesen R, Hovind PH, Jensen LT, Schwarz P. Determinants of vitamin D status in young adults: influence of lifestyle, sociodemographic and anthropometric factors. BMC Public Health 2016; 11;16:385.
 
13.
Vashi PG, Lammersfeld CA, Braun DP, Gupta D. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is inversely associated with body mass index in cancer. Nutr J. 2011;16 (10): 51–65.
 
eISSN:2084-6312
ISSN:1505-7054