Emission of chemical substances from office equipment
More details
Hide details
Zakład Zagrożeń Chemicznych, Pyłowych i Biologicznych, Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy – Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, Warszawa Kierownik Zakładu Zagrożeń Chemicznych, Pyłowych i Biologicznych: dr M. Pośniak Dyrektor CIOP-PIB: prof. dr hab. n. med. D. Koradecka
Joanna Kowalska   

Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy Państwowy Instytut Badawczy CIOP-PIB ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, tel. 48 22 623 46 76, fax 48 22 623 36 93
Med Srod. 2012;15(4):123–128
A number of potentially harmful pollutants are emitted from office equipment. Printers and copiers are sources of volatile organic compounds (VOC), which at least partly, are generated from the heated toner and paper dust during printing process. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene, and formaldehyde were detected in the blended emissions emitted from printing devices. Office printing devices are recognized to be the major sources of indoor fine and ultrafine aerosol particles. The emissions of certain pollutants from office equipment may be at relatively low level compared to other known sources (e.g. building materials). However, office equipment is potentially the important source of human exposure due to the short distance for the people operating them both at home and in the office
Społeczeństwo Informacyjne w Polsce. Wyniki badań statystycznych z lat 2007-2011. GUS. Informacje i Opracowania Statystyczne, Warszawa 2012: 39.
Zabiegała B., Przyjazny A., Namieśnik J.: Passive dosimetry as a technique alternative to dynamic enrichment of organic pollutants of in-door air prior to their final determination. J Environ Path Toxicol Oncol 1999; 18(1): 47-59.
Guo H., Lee S.C., Chan L.Y., et all: Risk assessment of exposure to volatile organic compounds in different indoor environments. Environ Res 2004; 94: 57–66.
Wang B.L., Takigawa T., Yamasaki Y., et all: Symptom definitions for SBS (sick building syndrome) in residential dwellings. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2008; 211: 114–120.
Destaillats H., Maddalena R.L., Singer B.C., et all: Indoor pollutants emitted by office equipment: A review of reported data and information needs. Atmos Environ 2008; 42: 1371–1388.
Yoon D., Hong S., Kang H., et all: A measurement on chemicals emitted from computers and printers using test chamber method: REHVA World Congress Clima 2007 WellBeing Indoors, 2007: 1307.
Berrios I.T., Zhang J.S., Guo B., et all: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from sources in a partitioned office environment and their impact on IAQ. Proceedings from 10th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate Beijing, China 2005: 1-6. pdf/Officeenvironment-abstract.pdf.
PN-EN ISO 16000-9:2009 Powietrze wnętrz – Część 9: Oznaczanie emisji lotnych związków organicznych z wyrobów budowlanych i wyposażenia – Badanie emisji metodą komorową.
Lee S.C., Lam S., Fai H.K.: Characterization of VOCs, ozone, and PM10 emissions from office equipment in an environmental chamber. Building and Environment 2001; 36 (7): 837–842.
Selway M.D, Allen R.J., Wadden R.A.: Ozone production from photocopying machines. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1980; 41: 455–9.
Wolkoff P., Wilkins C.K., Clausen P.A., et all: Comparison of volatile organic compounds from processed paper and toners from office copiers and printers. Indoor Air 1993; 3(3): 113–23.
Mendell M.J., Fisk W.J., Kreiss K., et all: Improving the health of workers in indoor environments: priority research needs for a national occupational research agenda. Am J Public Health 2002; 92: 1430–1440.
Wolkoff P., Wilkins C.K., Clausen P.A., et all: Organic compounds in office environments—sensory irritation, odor, measurements and the role of reactive chemistry. Indoor Air 2006; 16: 7–19.
Smola T., Georg H., Hohensee H.: Health hazards from laser printers?“. Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung Der Luft 2002; 62(7-8): 295-301.
Kagi N., Fujii S., Horiba Y., et all: Indoor air quality for chemical and ultrafine particle contaminants from printers. Building and Environment 2007; 42: 1949-1954.
Carlsson H., Nilsson U., Ostman C.: Video display units: an emission source of the contact allergenic flame retardant triphenyl phosphate in the indoor environment. Environ Sci Technol 2000; 34 (18): 3885–3889.
Hoshino K., Ogawa S., Kato S., et all: Measurement of SVOCs emitted from building materials and electric appliances using thermal desorption test chamber method. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Energy-efficient Healthy Buildings 2003, Singapore.
Rudel, R.A., Camann D.E., Spengler J.D., et all: Phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and other endocrine disrupting compounds in indoor air and dust. Environ Sci Technol 2003; 37(20): 4543-4553.
Noren K., Meironyte D.: Certain organochlorine and organobromine contaminants in Swedish human milk in perspective of past 20-30 years. Chemosphere 2000; 40: 1111-1123.
Jakobsson K., Thuresson K., Rylander L., et all: Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and tetrabromobisphenol A among computer technicians. Chemosphere 2002; 46: 709- 716.
Kemmlein S., Herzke D., Law R.J.: BFR-governmental testing programme. Environmental International 2003; 29: 781–792.
Salthammer T., Schripp T., Uhde E., et all: Aerosols generated by hardcopy devices and other electrical appliances. Environmental Pollution 2012; 169,:167-174.
Fiedler J., Kura J., Moriske H.J., et all: Freisetzung feiner and ultrafeiner partikeln aus laserdruckern unter realraumbedingungen. Gefahrstoffe – Reinhaltung der Luft 2009; 69: 77-82.
Morawska L., He C., Johnson G., et all: An Investigation into the characteristics and formation mechanisms of particles originating from the operation of laser printers. Environ Sci Technol 2009; 43: 1015-1022.
Schripp T., Mulakampilly S.J., Delius W., et all: Comparison of ultrafine particle release from hardcopy devices in emission test chambers and office rooms. Gefahrstoffe – Reinhaltung der Luft 2009; 69: 71-76.
Schripp T., Wensing M., Uhde E., et all: Evaluation of ultrafineparticle emissions from laser printers using emission test chambers. Environ Sci Technol 2008; 42: 4338-4343.
Wensing M., Schripp T., Uhde E., et all: Ultra-fine particles release from hardcopy devices: sources, real-room measurements and efficiency of filter accessories. Sci Total Environ 2008; 407: 418-427.
He C., Morawska L., Taplin L.: Particle emission characteristic of office printers. Environ Sci Technol 2007; 41: 6039-6045.
Asgharian B., Price O.T.: Deposition of ultrafine (NANO) particles in the human lung. Inhalation Toxicology 2007; 19: 1045.
Wensing M., Pinz G., Bednarek M., et all: Particle measurement of hardcopy devices. In: Proceedings of the Healthy Building 2006; Conference, Lisbon, Portugal, vol. II: 461-464.
Koivisto A.J., Hussein T., Niemelä R., et all.: Impact of particle emissions of New laser printers on modeled office room. Atmospheric Environment 2010; 44: 2140-2146.
Barthel M., Pedan V., Hahn O., et all.: XRF-analysis of fine and ultrafine particles emitted from laser printing devices. Environ Sci Technol 2011; 45(18): 7819-7825.
Lee C.W., Hsu D.J.: Measurements of fine and ultrafine particles formation in photocopy centers in Taiwan. Atmospheric Environment 2007; 41: 6598-6609.
Tang T., Hurraß J., Gminski R., et all: Fine and ultrafine particles emitted from laser printers as indoor air contaminants in German offices, Environ Sci Pollut Res 2011; DOI: 10.1007/s11356-011-0647-5.
Pośniak M., Makhniashvili I., Kozieł E., i wsp.: Zanieczyszczenia chemiczne w pomieszczeniach pracy biurowej – ocena narażenia. Bezpieczeństwo Pracy 2004; 6: 21-25.