Environmental exposure to vinyl chloride
More details
Hide details
Instytut Medycyny Pracy i Zdrowia Środowiskowego Dyrektor: dr n. med. P. Brewczyński
Corresponding author
Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka
41-200 Sosnowiec skr. poczt. 115 tel. 32 292 49 65 (dom) 32 266 08 85-9 w. 200 (praca)
Med Srod. 2010;13(3):7-10
Vinyl chloride (VC) monomer is a wellknown carcinogenic and mutagenic substance causes liver damages, angiosarcoma of the liver, acro – osteolysis, sclerodermalike changes in workers chronically exposed to this gas. There are following VC emitors to the environment: VC production plants, polymerization facilities and planes where polyvinyl products are fabricated. Because of that, the general population is coming into VC contact through polluted air, food and water. VC concentration in all mentioned sites is very low, often not detectable. There was found any health risk for the general population. The VC air concentration in the vicinity to antropogenic emitors is always higher. Such a situation may causes undesirable health effect for residents living in the neighbourhood. Epidemiological studies are performed to detect the adverse VC effect in selected cohorts. Non of the study did not confirmed cases of angiosarcoma among residents living near a vinyl chloride sites. VC production is growing permanently, so VC emission will be higher. Because of that health monitoring of general population and especially of selected groups seems to be necessary in the future.
Wichrowska B., Lewandowska-Malinowska I., Stankiewicz A: Zdrowy dom a PVC. Księgarnia Akademicka Sp. z o.o. Kraków 1999. ISBN 83–7188–007-3.
Szymczak W.: Ilościowa ocena ryzyka zawodowego związanego z zawodowym inhalacyjnym narażeniem na chlorek winylu w zakładach produkcyjnych w Polsce. Med. Pracy 1997; 2: 153-159.
Dimitry O.I.H., Sayed W.M., Mazgroma A.M. et al: Poly(vinyl chloride)nanocomposities – electrical and mechanical properties. Polimery 2009; 54: 1, 8-14.
Makk L., Creech J.L., Whelan J.G. i wsp.: Liver damage and angiosarcoma in vinyl chloride workers. J Am Med Assoc 1974; 230: 64-68.
Edmonds L.D., Anderson C.E., Flynt J.W. et al: Congenital central system malformations and vinyl chloride monomer exposure. A community study. Teratology 1978; 17: 137-142.
Fucˇiç A., Horwat D., Dimitrovic B.: Mutagenicity of vinyl chloride in man: comparison of chromosome aberration with micronucleus and sister – chromatid exchange frequencies. Mutation Research 1990; 242: 265-270.
Creech J.L, Johnson M.N.: Angiosarcoma of liver in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride. J Occup Med 1974; 16: 150- 151.
Cordier J.M. at al: Acroosteolyse et lésions cutanées associées chez les ouvriers affectés au nettoyage d’autoclaves. Ca Med Travail 1966; 4.
Byczkowska Z., Langauer-Lewowicka H.: ZespóΠ Raynaud u zatrudnionych przy produkcji polichlorku winylu. Pol Tyg Lek 1974; 29: 1461-1464.
Langauer-Lewowicka H., Dudziak Z., Byczkowska Z., Marks J.: Cryoglobulinemia in Ranyaud’s phenomenon due to vinyl chloride. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1976; 36: 197-207.
Baxter P.J., Anthony P.P. et al: Angiosarcoma of the liver in Great Britain, 1963-1973. Brit Med J 1977; 2: 919-921.
IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Cancerogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans V19 Some Monomers, Plastics and Synthetic Elastomers and Acrolein. IARC, Lyon 1979.
Harris D.K., Adams W.G.F.: Acro – osteolysis occuring in men engaged in the polimerisation of vinyl chloride. Brit Med J 1967; 3: 712-714.
Council Directive of 30 January 1978 on the approximatio of the Member States Relating to materials and articles which contain vinyl chloride monomer and are intended to come into contact with foodstuffs. Official Journal No L44, 15.02.1978.
Commision Directive of 29 April 1981 laying down the Community method of analysis for the official control of vinyl chloride released by materials and articles into foodstuffs, 81/432/EEC, Official Journal 167, 24.06.1981.
Commision Directive of 8 July 1980 laying down the Community method of analysis for the official control of vinyl chloride monomer level in the materials and articles which are intended to come into contact with foodstuffs, 80/766/EEC, Official Journal 167, 24.06.1981.
Guidelines for drinking water quality. Vol. 2 – Health criteria and other supporting information. World Health Organization, Genewa 1996.
Zarządzenie Ministra Zdrowia i Opieki Społecznej z dnia 12 marca 1996 r. w sprawie dopuszczalnych stężeń i natężeń czynników szkodliwych dla zdrowia, wydzielanych przez materiały budowlane, urządzenia i elementy wyposażenia w pomieszczeniach przeznaczonych na pobyt ludzi. Monitor Polski nr 19, 231, 1996.
Malina A., Konieczyński J.: Ocena ekologiczna wybranych procesów produkcyjnych. Monografia. Gliwice 2004.
Hoffmann D., Patrianakos C., Brunnemann K.D. et al: Chromatographic determination of vinyl chloride in tobacco smoke. Ann Chem 1976; 48: 47-50.
Smith L.R., Dragun J.: Degradation of volatile chlorinated aliphatic priority pollutants in groundwater. Environ Int 1984; 10: 291-298.
Davis J.W., Carpenter C.L.: Aerobic biodegradation of vinyl chloride in ground – water samples. Appl Environ Microbiol 1990; 56(12): 3878-3880.
Barrio-Lage G.A., Parsons F.Z., Narbait R.M. et al: Enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of vinyl chloride in groundwater. Environ Toxicol Chem 1990; 9(4): 403-415.
Castro C.E., Wade R.S., Riebeth D.M. et al: Biodegradation – rapid metabolism of vinyl chloride by a soil Pseudomonas sp. Direct hydrolysis of a vinyl C-Cl bond. Envir Toxicol Chem 1992; 11(6): 757-764.
Toxicological Profile for Vinyl Chloride (Update) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Public Health Service, Atlanta, Georgia 30333 2006.
Elliot P., Kleinschmidt I.: Angiosarcoma of the liver in Great Britain in proximity to vinyl chloride sites. Occup Environ Med 1997; 54: 14-18.
Doll R.: Effects of exposure to vinyl chloride: an assessment of the evidence. Scand JWork Environ Health 1988; 14: 61-78.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top