The influence of lead on hematopoesis - contemporary views
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Katedra i Zakład Farmakologii, Wydział Lekarski z Oddziałem Lekarsko-Dentystycznym w Zabrzu, Śląski Uniwersytet Medyczny w Katowicach. Kierownik: dr hab. n. med. Natalia Pawlas
Katedra i Zakład Biochemii, Wydział Lekarski z Oddziałem Lekarsko-Dentystycznym w Zabrzu, Śląski Uniwersytet Medyczny w Katowicach. Kierownik: prof. dr hab. n. med. E. Birkner
Med Srod. 2018;21(4):39–43
Due to the high prevalence of lead compounds in the human environment they can be different ways of getting out of this metal in the body: the respiratory system, skin, or oral route. About 95% of lead circulating in the blood is in erythrocytes where it interferes with their proper functioning. Lead already in small doses causes discreet functional and structural changes, its toxic action mainly affects the functioning of the nervous and hematopoietic systems. Toxicity mechanisms of lead are the subject of many studies. One of the main mechanisms results from the similarity of lead ions to ions such as elements such as zinc and calcium. Toxic effects of lead on the hematopoietic system are mainly associated with the inhibitory effect of this element on the biosynthesis of haem by the inactivation of key enzymes in the pathway – dehydratase δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALAD) and ferrochelataze. The effect of lead on the concentration of erythropoietin is ambiguous and depends to a large extent on the dose and time of exposure to this element. Lead not only affects the functioning of erythrocytes, but also leukocytes, both in vitro and in vivo. Immunotoxicity associated with short-term exposure to lead is caused by mpartial immunosuppression and deregulation of the immune system, which is reflected in the decrease in hematopoietic cytokines. It seems that the exposure time and dose of exposure to lead are key when assessing the impact of this element on hematopoiesis.
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