Ozone concentration attributable premature death in Poland
More details
Hide details
Narodowy Instytut Zdrowia Publicznego – Państwowy Zakład Higieny Zakład Higieny Komunalnej (kierownik dr Bożena Krogulska)
Med Srod. 2010;13(1):30–40
Ozone in the lower part of the atmosphere (troposphere), strong photochemical oxidant, is not directly emitted to the atmosphere but formed through a series of complex reactions. Ozone concentrations depends on ozone precursors air contamination (mainly nitrogen dioxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds) and meteorological conditions (temperature and solar radiation). The main sectors emitted ozone precursors are road transport, power and heat generation plants, household (heating), industry, and petrol storage and distribution. Ozone and some of its precursors are also transported long distances in the atmosphere and are therefore considered a transboundary problem. As a result, the ozone concentrations are often low in busy urban areas and higher in suburban and rural areas. Nowadays, instead of particulate matter, ozone is one of the most widespread global air pollution problems. In and around urban areas, relatively large gradients of ozone can be observed. Because of its high reactivity in elevated concentrations ozone causes serious health problems and damage to ecosystems, agricultural crops and materials. Main ill-health endpoints as a results of ozone concentrations can be characterised as an effect of pulmonary and cardiovascular system, time morbidity and mortality series, development of atherosclerosis and asthma and finally reduction in life expectancy. The associations with increased daily mortality due to ozone concentrations are confirmed by many researches and epidemiological studies. Estimation of the level selected ill-health endpoints (mortality in total and due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes) as a result of the short-term ozone exposure in Poland was the main aim of the project. Final results have been done based on estimation method elaborated by WHO, ozone measurements from National Air Quality Monitoring System and statistical information such as mortality rate and populations. All analysis have been done in ozone air quality zones. The adverse health effect associated with the ozone concentration is observed in every regions in Poland, very often during holiday time when high level episodes are occurred.
Assessment of ground-level ozone in EEA member countries, with a focus on long-term trends, EEA Technical report Nom 7/2009, Copenhagen 2009.
Spatial assessment of PM10 and ozone concentrations in Europe (2005), EEA Technical report No 1/2009, Copenhagen 2009.
Air pollution by ozone across Europe during summer 2007. Overview of exceedances of EC ozone threshold values for April–September 2007, EEA Technical report No 5/2008, Copenhagen 2008.
Health risks of ozone from long-range transboundary air pollution, Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2008.
J. Iwanek, D. Kobus, G. Mitosek; „Ocena zanieczyszczenia powietrza w Polsce w roku 2007 w Świetle wyników pomiarów prowadzonych w ramach PMŚ”, praca wykonana na zlecenie Głównego Inspektoratu Ochrony Środowiska w Instytucie Ochrony Środowiska; Inspekcja Ochrony Środowiska, Warszawa 2008, (
D. Kobus, G. Mitosek, J. Iwanek; „Ocena jakości powietrza w strefach w Polsce za rok 2007”. Zbiorczy raport krajowy z rocznej oceny jakości powietrza w strefach wykonywanej przez WIOŚ wg zasad określonych w art. 89 ustawy-Prawo ochrony Środowiska”, praca wykonana na zlecenie Głównego Inspektoratu Ochrony Środowiska w Instytucie Ochrony Środowiska;, Inspekcja Ochrony Środowiska, Warszawa 2008, (
Czwarty Raport Oceny, European Environment Agency Belgrad, 2007.
Air pollution in Europe 1990–2004, EEA Technical report No 2/2007, Copenhagen 2007.
„Air Quality Guidelines. Global update 2005. Particulate Matter, Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide”, Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2006 (WHO Regional Publications, European Series, No. 91).
Prüss-Üstün A, et al. Introduction and methods: assessing the environmental burden of disease at national and local levels. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2003. (WHO Environmental Burden of Disease Series, No. 1).
Air quality guidelines for Europe, 2nd ed.” Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2000 (WHO Regional Publications).
M. Krzy˝anowski: Methods for assessing the extent of exposure and effects of air pollution; Occupational and Environmental Medicine 1997;54: 145-151
Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2008 on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe (OJ L 152, 11.6.2008, p. 1–44).
Ustawa z dnia 27 kwietnia 2001 r. – Prawo ochrony Środowiska (Dz. U. z 2008 Nr 25 poz. 150).
Rozporzàdzenie Ministra Środowiska z dnia 17 grudnia 2008 r. w sprawie dokonywania oceny poziomów substancji w powietrzu (Dz. U. z 2009 Nr 5 poz. 31).
Rozporządzeniem Ministra Środowiska z dnia 6 marca 2008 w sprawie stref, w których dokonuje si´ oceny jakości powietrza (Dz. U. z 2008 Nr 53, poz. 310).
Rozporządzenie Ministra Środowiska z dnia 3 marca 2008 r. w sprawie poziomów niektórych substancji w powietrzu (Dz. U. z 2008 Nr 47, poz. 281).
Ustawa z dnia 20 lipca 1991 roku o Inspekcji Ochrony Środowiska (Dz. U. z 1991 r. Nr 77, poz. 335 z późn. zm.).