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PRACA POGLĄDOWA
Działanie przeciwnowotworowe taksanów ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem wykorzystania ich w terapii czerniaka
 
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Katedra i Zakład Patofizjologii, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie, Polska
AUTOR DO KORESPONDENCJI
Paula Wróblewska-Łuczka   

Katedra i Zakład Patofizjologii, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie, Jaczewskiego 8b, 20-090, Lublin, Polska
 
Med Srod. 2020;23(1-4):9–17
 
SŁOWA KLUCZOWE
DZIEDZINY
STRESZCZENIE
Wprowadzenie i cel pracy:
Diagnozę nowotworu dostają miliony ludzi na świecie, a ich liczba nieustannie rośnie. Aby pomóc w zwalczeniu tej śmiercionośnej choroby, naukowcy od lat pracują nad znalezieniem coraz to lepszych leków. Źródłem wielu z nich jest natura. Do takich związków należą taksany – substancje pochodzące z wyciągu z cisu, które wykazują działanie przeciwnowotworowe.

Opis stanu wiedzy:
Do grupy taksanów należą: paklitaksel, docetaksel i kabazytaksel. Są to leki cytostatyczne, działające poprzez stabilizację tubuliny. Istnieją dwie teorie wyjaśniające śmierć komórek po stosowaniu taksanów: jedna z nich to zatrzymanie komórek w mitozie, a druga to śmierć w wyniku aktywacji punktów kontrolnych w odpowiedzi na nieprawidłową segregację chromosomów wśród komórek, które przeszły nieprawidłową mitozę bądź uległy poślizgowi mitotycznemu. Śmierć następuje w mechanizmie apoptozy. Naukowcy opracowują różne sposoby zwiększenia biodostępności leków, by uzyskać lepsze efekty terapeutyczne oraz stosować lek w jak najniższej możliwej dawce, tak aby zminimalizować ryzyko efektów ubocznych. Taksany są powszechnie stosowane w terapii wielu nowotworów. Leczy się nimi np. pacjentów z rakiem piersi, jajnika, prostaty, żołądka, niedrobnokomórkowym rakiem płuc. W pracy omówione zostały te terapie z uwzględnieniem najnowszych doniesień naukowych. Dodatkowo szczególnie dokładnie opisana została możliwość leczenia taksanami najgroźniejszego nowotworu skóry – czerniaka, w tereapii którego dotychczas leki te nie były rutynowo stosowane.

Podsumowanie:
Badania naukowe rozwijają wiedzę o działaniu taksanów i potwierdzają ich właściwości antynowotworowe ratujące życie coraz to większej grupy pacjentów onkologicznych.


Introduction and objective:
Cancer is diagnosed in millions of people worldwide, and their number is constantly growing. For many years researchers have made efforts to find more effective drugs in order to control this deadly disease. These compounds include taxanes – substances derived from yew extract which exhibit anti-cancer properties.

Brief description of the state of knowledge:
Taxanes include paclitaxel, docetaxel, and cabazitaxel. These are cytostatic drugs that act by stabilizing tubulin. There are two theories to explain cell death after the application of taxanes: one of which is cell arrest in mitosis, and the other is death by activation of checkpoints in response to abnormal chromosome segregation among cells that have undergone abnormal mitosis or mitotic slippage. Death occurs through the mechanism of apoptosis. Scientists are developing various ways to increase the bioavailability of drugs to achieve better therapeutic effects, and to use the drug in the lowest possible dose to minimize the risk of side effects. Taxanes are commonly used in the treatment of many types of cancer, for example, in the treatment of patients with breast cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate or stomach cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. The article discusses these therapies, taking into account the latest scientific reports. In addition, the possibility of treating the most dangerous skin cancer – melanoma has been described in detail, in which these drugs have not yet been routinely used.

Summary:
Scientific studies develop knowledge concerning the effect of taxanes and confirm their anti-cancer properties, which save the lives of an increasingly larger group of cancer patients.

 
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