RESEARCH PAPER
Analysis of selected virulence factors of bacteria and yeast isolated from work environments in composting plants, tenneries, museums
 
More details
Hide details
1
Instytut Technologii Fermentacji i Mikrobiologii, Politechnika Łódzka Dyrektor Instytutu: dr hab. B. Gutarowska prof. nadzw.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Justyna Skóra   

Instytut Technologii Fermentacji i Mikrobiologii Politechnika Łódzka ul. Wólczańska 171/173, 90-924 Łódź tel. (42) 631-34-70
 
Med Srod. 2014;17(3):52–61
 
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
The aim of the study was to evaluate the production of selected virulence factors by potential pathogenic microorganisms isolated in workplaces. The influence of technical material present at the workplaces on strains virulence was also determined.

Material and Methods:
11 bacteria and yeast strains isolated from the air (impact method) or surface (RODAC method) in work environments. Identification was performed by API tests and molecular methods. The selected factors were analyzed: production of polysaccharide capsules, proteinase, gelatinase, lipase, coagulase, deoxyribonuclease, enterotoxins and hemolytic abilities. Apart from standard microbiological media, minerals media with addition of cellulose, wet blue leather, compost extract were used.

Results:
8 from 11 tested strains produced hemolysis, including 4 bacterial strains (Bacillus cereus two strains, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus) – β-hemolysis. Polysaccharide capsules were detected for yeast Cryptococcus albidus. Bacteria, mainly from the genus Bacillus, produced protease and gelatinase. Moreover, B. cereus strains from composting plants and tanneries produced enterotoxins (NHE and HBL). The presence of leather or compost in the medium can stimulate or inhibit toxin production, depending on the bacteria species and toxin type. S. haemolyticus from the museum produced lipase and deoxyribonuclease. It was found that Corynebacterium lubricantis and Candida parapsilosis did not produce any of the tested virulence factors

Conclusions:
In the work environment in composting, tanneries, museums with high frequency (56–100%) there are potentially pathogenic organisms: Bacillus cereus, B. pumilus, B. subtilis, Cryptococcus albidus, Pseudomonas vancouverensis, Staphylococcus heamolyticus able to produce virulence factors (polysaccharide capsules, proteinase, gelatinase, lipase, coagulate, deoxyribonuclease, enterotoxins, haemolysins).

 
REFERENCES (32)
1.
Górny R.L., Dutkiewicz J.: Biologiczne czynniki szkodliwe dla zdrowia – klasyfikacja i kryteria oceny narażenia. Med Pr 2002; 53(1): 29-39.
 
2.
Buczyńska A., Sowiak M., Szadkowska-Stańczyk I.: Ocena ekspozycji zawodowej na drobnoustroje mezofile podczas prac związanych z produkcją podłoża do przemysłowej uprawy grzybów. Med Pr 2008; 59(5): 373-379.
 
3.
Gutarowska B., Piotrowska M.: Zanieczyszczenie mikrobiologiczne powietrza na stanowiskach pracy w garbarni. Ekologia i Technika 2008; 16(5): 224-228.
 
4.
Skóra J., Zduniak K., Gutarowska B. i wsp.: Szkodliwe czynniki biologiczne na stanowiskach pracy w muzeach. Med Pr 2012; 63(2): 153-165.
 
5.
Bünger J., Schappler-Scheele B., Hilgers R. i wsp.: A 5-year follow-up study on respiratory disorders and lung function in workers exposed to organic dust from composting plants. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2007; 80(4): 306-312.
 
6.
Byeon J.H., Park C.W., Yoon K.Y. i wsp.: Size distributions of total airborne particles and bioaerosols in a municipal composting facility. Bioresour Technol 2008; 99(11): 5150-5154.
 
7.
Reid C.-A., Small A., Avery S.M. i wsp.: Presence of foodborne pathogens on cattle hides. Food Control 2002; 13(6- 7): 411-415.
 
8.
Biswas S., Rahman T.: The Effect of Working Place on Worker’s Health in a Tannery in Bangladesh. Advances in Anthropology 2013; 3(1): 46-53.
 
9.
Wiszniewska M., Walusiak-Skorupa J., Pannenko I. i wsp.: Occupational exposure and sensitization to fungi among museum workers. Occup Med 2009; 59(4): 237-242.
 
10.
Tsangaras K., Greenwood A.D.: Museums and disease: Using tissue archive and museum samples to study pathogens. Ann Anat 2012; 194(1): 58-73.
 
11.
Witkowska D., Bartyś A., Gamian A.: Białka osłony komórkowej pałeczek jelitowych i ich udział w patogenności oraz odporności przeciwbakteryjnej. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (online) 2009; 63: 176-199.
 
12.
Casadevall A., Pirofski L.A.: Host-pathogen interactions: the attributes of virulence. J Infect Dis 2001; 184(3): 337-344.
 
13.
Thomas S.R., Elkinton J.S.: Pathogenicity and virulence. J Invertebr Pathol 2004; 85(3): 146-151.
 
14.
Cross A.S. Commentary: What is a virulence factor? Critical Care 2008; 12(6): 196.
 
15.
Roche S.M, Gracieux P., Milohanic E. i wsp.: Investigation of specific substitutions in virulence genes characterizing phenotypic groups of low-virulence field strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005; 71(10): 6039-6048.
 
16.
Deptuła A., Mikucka A., Gospodarek E.: Wpływ warunków hodowli na hydrofobowe właściwości wielolekoopornych szczepów Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Med Dośw Mikrobiol 2004; 56: 359-364.
 
17.
Gutarowska B., Skóra J., Stępień Ł. i wsp.: Estimation of moulds contamination and mycotoxins production at the workplaces, World Mycotoxin Journal 2013; 7: 345-355.
 
18.
Rozporządzenie Ministra Zdrowia z dn. 22 kwietnia 2005 (DzU z 2005, nr 81, poz.716 ze zm. DzU 2008, nr 48, poz.288) w sprawie szkodliwych czynników biologicznych dla zdrowia w środowisku pracy oraz ochrony zdrowia pracownikówzawodowo narażonych na te czynniki.
 
19.
Dutkiewicz J, Śpiewak R, Jabłoński L. i wsp.: Biologiczne Czynniki Zagrożenia Zawodowego. Klasyfikacja, Narażone Grupy Zawodowe, Pomiary, Profilaktyka. Ad Punctum, Lublin 2007.
 
20.
Zaremba M.L.: Mikrobiologia lekarska: podręcznik dla studentów medycyny. Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL, Warszawa 1997.
 
21.
Szewczyk E.M.: Diagnostyka bakteriologiczna. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa 2005.
 
22.
Jabłoński L.: Podstawy mikrobiologii lekarskiej. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa 1986.
 
23.
Bednarczyk A., Daczkowska Kozon G.E.: Czynniki patogenności bakterii z grupy Bacillus cereus. Post Mikrob 2008; 47(1): 51-63.
 
24.
Jawetz E., Melnick J.L., Adelberg E.A.: Review of Medical Microbiology. Appleton & Lange, California 1987.
 
25.
Molnar, C., Hevessy, Z., Rozgonyi, F. i wsp.: Pathogenicity and virulence of coagulase negative staphylococci in relation to adherence, hydrophobicity, and toxin production in vitro. J Clin Pathol 1994; 47(8): 743-748.
 
26.
Kreger-van Rij N.J.W.: The yeast, a taxonomical study. Els Sci Pabl BV, Amsterdam 1984.
 
27.
Travis J., Potempa J., Maeda H.: Are bacterial proteinases pathogenic factors? Trends Microbiology 1995; 3(10): 405-407.
 
28.
Lindbäck T., Fagerlund A., Rødland M.S. i wsp.: Characterization of the Bacillus cereus Nhe enterotoxin. Microbiology 2004; 150: 3959-3967.
 
29.
Simango C.: Characterisation of Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolated from urinary tract infections. Cent Afr J Med 2005; 51(11-12): 112-114.
 
30.
De Vos P., Garrity G., Jones D. i wsp.: Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Springer, New York 2009.
 
31.
Lei M.N., Brown H.: Corynebacterium accolens isolated from breast abscess: possible association with granulomatous mastitis. J Clin Microbiol 2007; 45(5): 1666-1668.
 
32.
van Asbeck E.C., Clemons K.V., Stevens D.A.: Candida parapsilosis: a review of its epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects, typing and antimicrobial susceptibility. Crit Rev Microbiol 2009; 35(4): 283-309.
 
eISSN:2084-6312
ISSN:1505-7054