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PRACA POGLĄDOWA
Prozdrowotne działanie olejków eterycznych cytrusów
 
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Katedra i Zakład Patofizjologii, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie, Polska
AUTOR DO KORESPONDENCJI
Paula Wróblewska-Łuczka   

Katedra i Zakład Patofizjologii, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie, Jaczewskiego 8b, 20-090, Lublin, Polska
 
Med Srod. 2019;22(3-4):39–43
 
SŁOWA KLUCZOWE
DZIEDZINY
STRESZCZENIE
Wprowadzenie i cel:
Olejki eteryczne to lotne, aromatyczne substancje będące metabolitami wtórnymi roślin. Olejki eteryczne mają różny skład chemiczny, który wpływa na działanie biologiczne danego olejku. Olejki eteryczne są wykorzystywane zarówno w przemyśle spożywczym do aromatyzowania żywności, jak również w przemyśle kosmetycznym i perfumeryjnym. Liczne ich działania na organizm człowieka, m.in.: moczopędne, wykrztuśne, przeciwzapalne, przeciwskurczowe, uspokajające, powodują, że są one stosowane w przemyśle farmaceutycznym. Celem tego przeglądu jest podsumowanie działań biologicznych i bezpieczeństwa stosowania olejków eterycznych z popularnych cytrusów, tj: gorzkiej pomarańczy (Citrus aurantium L.), mandarynki (Citrus reticulata), cytryny (Citrus limon), grejpfruta (Citrus paradisi).

Opis stanu wiedzy:
Olejki eteryczne są najważniejszym produktem ubocznym przetwarzania owoców cytrusowych, jego znaczne ilości znajdują się w skórce i soku owoców. Olejki zostały sklasyfikowane jako ogólnie uznane za bezpieczne – posiadają status GRAS. Olejki eteryczne z cytrusów znane są ze swoich właściwości przeciwbakteryjnych i przeciwgrzybicznych, wykazują istotny wpływ na ośrodkowy układ nerwowy, działają przeciwlękowo. Olejki cytrusów wykazują również działanie przewskurczowe, przeciwzapalne, a także odstraszające owady.

Podsumowanie:
Obecnie olejki eteryczne cytrusów stosowane są w przemyśle spożywczym jako substancje aromatyzujące, w przemyśle kosmetycznym i perfumeryjnym – z uwagi na ich aromat oraz właściwości konserwujące i przeciwdrobnoustrojowe. Olejki eteryczne są również wykorzystywane w przemyśle farmaceutycznym – jako składniki produktów, które mają regulować funkcje układu trawiennego czy dobre samopoczucie.


Introduction and objective:
Essential oils are volatile, aromatic substances that are secondary metabolites of plants. Essential oils have a different chemical composition which exerts an effect on the biological action of the oil. Essential oils are used both in food industry for flavouring food, as well as in the cosmetics and perfumery industry. Due to numerous effects on the human body, including: diuretic, expectorant, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic and sedative, they are used in pharmaceutical industry. The aim of the review is to summarize the biological effects and safety of using essential oils from popular citrus, i.e. bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.), tangerine (Citrus reticulata), lemon (Citrus limon), and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi).

Abbreviated description of the state of knowledge:
Essential oils are the most important by-product of citrus processing, with significant amounts in the peel and juice of the fruit. The oils have been classified as generally recognized as safe – they have the GRAS status. Citrus essential oils are known for their antibacterial and antifungal properties, have a significant effect on the central nervous system and anti-anxiety properties. Citrus oils also show anti-spasmodic, anti-inflammatory and insect repellent properties.

Summary:
Currently, citrus essential oils are used in the food industry as flavourings, in the cosmetics and perfumery industry – due to their aroma, preservative and antimicrobial properties. Essential oils are also used in the pharmaceutical industry – as ingredients in products that are supposed to regulate the functions of the digestive system and psychological well-being.

 
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