RESEARCH PAPER
Body fat levels in children in younger school age from rural areas living in Copper Mining Region in south-west Poland
 
More details
Hide details
1
Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego we Wrocławiu Katedra Biostruktury. Kierownik Katedry: Prof. zw. dr hab. Z. Ignasiak
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Paweł Posłuszny   

Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego we Wrocławiu Katedra Biostruktury Al. J.I. Paderewskiego 35, 51-612 Wrocław, tel: 0 71 347 33 61
 
Med Srod. 2011;14(1):50–57
 
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
Obesity as a civilization disease has bee called the "epidemic" in the late twentieth century. It is a risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, which is the last time a major cause of death. In Europe and the United States, the number of overweight people exceeds now 50% of the population. The incidence of overweight and obesity continue to rise and this phenomenon is also observed in our country even in case of an early childhood. In Poland, percentage of very young school children (boys and girls) who are overweight or obese amounts to about 15%. Obesity is particularly common among children from industrial environments living in highly developed countries. The aim of his study was to assess the level of fat in boys and girls from rural areas aged 7 to 10 from industrial environment.

Material and Methods:
The study was carried out at six rural schools located in the copper mining region in south- west Poland in 2001. For the needs of the study use was made of existing results covering altogether 488 children of early school age – 261 girls and 227 boys. Measurements were taken of height, body mass, waist and hip circumferences. Body fat, body water and lean body mass were measured with Futrex. Respectively the BMI and WHR were calculated from measurements taken earlier.

Results:
The BMI level is within the values of acceptable standard in majority of children. The percentage of children above the standard fluctuates within the limits of typical peers from other regions of the country and is about 15%. In boys obesity increases with age, in girls the values increase also, but they are of lower importance. Most of the examined children present an average level of total body fatness. A very small percentage of them exceeds the level considered as obese.

 
REFERENCES (29)
1.
Cole J. T., Bellizzi M. C., Flegal K. M., Dietz W. H. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. B. M. J. 2000; 320, 1–6
 
2.
James P. T., Leach R., Kalamara E., Shayeghi M. The Worldwide Obesity Epidemic. Obes Res. 2001; 9, supl. 4, 228S–233S.
 
3.
Janssen I., Katzmarzyk P. T., Srinivasan S. R., Chen W., Malina R. M., Bouchard C., Berenson G. S. Combined influence of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference on coronary artery disease risk factors among children and adolescents. Pediatrics 2005; 115, 6, 1623–1630.
 
4.
Veugelers P. J., Fitzgerald A. L. Prevalence of and risk factors for childhood overweight and obesity. CMAJ 2005; 13, 173 (6), 607–613.
 
5.
Rywik S., Wàgrowska H., Piotrowski W., Broda G. OtyΠoÊç jako czynnik ryzyka chorób ukΠadu krà˝enia. Polski Tygodnik Lekarski 1995; 1, 63–67.
 
6.
Wang Y., Monteiro C., Popkin B. M. Trends of obesity and underweight in older children and adolescents in the United States, Brazil, China, and Russia. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2002; 75 (6), 971–977.
 
7.
Welon Z., Szklarska A., Bielicki T. Nadwaga i Otyłość w Populacji Wielkomiejskiej w latach 1983–1999. Monografie Zakładu Antropologii PAN 2001; 21, Wroclaw.
 
8.
Małecka-Tendera, E., Klimek, K., Matusik, P., Olszanecka- Glinianowicz, M., Lehingue Y. Obesity and overweight prevalence in Polish 7- to 9-year-old children. Obes Res. 2005; 13: 964–968.
 
9.
Drabik J. Aktywność fizyczna w edukacji zdrowotnej społeczeństwa cz. I, Wydawnictwo Uczelniane AWF Gdańsk 1995.
 
10.
FUTREX, INC. Futrex-5000 Research Manual. Gaithersburg, MD, 1988.
 
11.
Heyward V. H., Stolarczyk L. M. Applied Body Composition Assessment. Human Kinetics, Champaign 1996.
 
12.
Stupnicki R., Przew´da R., Milde K. Centylowe siatki sprawności fizycznej polskiej młodzieży wg testów Eurofit. AWF Warszawa 2003.
 
13.
Kozłowski S., Nazar K. Wprowadzenie do fizjologii klinicznej. Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL, Warszawa 1999.
 
14.
Flegal K. M., Ogden C. L., Wei R., Kuczmarski R. L., Johnson C. L. Prevalence of overweight in US children: comparison of US growth charts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with other reference values for body mass index. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001; 73(6), 1086–1093.
 
15.
PrzybyΠowicz K., Cichoƒ R. Ocena wyst´powania otyłości wśród studentek przy zastosowaniu klasyfikacji BMI i pomiaru szerokości nasady nadgarstkowej. Nowiny Lekarskie 2002; 71, 1, 40–43.
 
16.
Sachdev H. S., Fall C. H. D., Osmond C., Lakshmy R., Dey Biswas S. K., Leary S. D., Reddy K. S., Barker D. J. P., Bhargava S. K. Anthropometric indicators of body composition in young adults: relation to size at birth and serial measurements of body mass index in childhood in the New Delhi birth cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 82, 456–466.
 
17.
Botton J., Heude B., Kettaneh A., Borys J. M., Lommez A., Bresson J. L., Ducimetiere P., Charles M. A. Cardiovascular risk factor levels and their relationships with overweight and fat distribution in children: the Fleurbaix Laventie Ville Santé II study. Metabolism, 56(5), 614–6 Janssen I., Katzmarzyk P. T., Ross R. (2002) Body Mass Index, waist circumference and health risk. Arch. Intern. Med. 2007; 162, 14, 2074–2079.
 
18.
Fuller N. J., Dewit O., Wells J. C. The potential of near infrared interactance for predicting body composition in children. Eur. J. Clin. Nut. 2001; 55(11), 967–972.
 
19.
Brooke-Wavell K., Jones P. R. M., Norgan N. G. Hardman A. E. Evaluation of near infra-red interactance for assessment of subcutaneous and total body fat. Eur. J. Clin. Nut. 1995, 49, 57–65.
 
20.
Conway J. M., Norris K. H., Bodwell C. E. A new approach for the estimation of body composition: infrared interactance. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1984; 40(6), 1123–1130.
 
21.
Kalantar-Zadeh K., Dunne E., Nixon K., Kahn K., Lee G. H., Kleiner M., Luft F. C. Near infra-red interactance for nutritional assessment of dialysis patients. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 1999; 14(1), 169–175.
 
22.
Elia M., Parkinson S. A., Diaz E. Evaluation of near infrared interactance as a method for predicting body composition. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1990; 44(2), 113–121.
 
23.
Young H., Porcari J., Terry L., Brice G. Validity of body composition assessment methods for older men with cardiac disease. J. Cardiopulm Rehabil. 1998;18 (3), 221–227.
 
24.
Smith D. B., Johnson G. O., Stout J. R., Housh T. J., Housh D. J., Evetovich T. K. Validity of near-infrared interactance for estimating relative body fat in female high school gymnasts. Int. J. Sports. Med. 1997; 18 (7), 531–537.
 
25.
Wit B., Busko K., Mroz A., Klossowski M. The using of bioelectric impedance (BIA) and nearinfrared spectrophotometric (futrex) determinations of body composition in males of variable physical activity – a comparative analysis. Biology of Sport 2001; 4, 321–334.
 
26.
Oblacińska A., Jodkowska M., Tabak I., Ostręga W. Samoocena zdrowia i sprawności fizycznej polskich gimnazjalistów z nadwagą i otyłością Auksologia a promocja zdrowia 2007; 4, 69–80.
 
27.
Ziółkowska E. Studia tendencji przemian cech morfologicznych. Uwarunkowania i skutki w świetle badań wieloletnich. Monografie AWF w Poznaniu 1999; 336.
 
28.
Ignasiak Z., Zaleski A., Wolski P. Sprawność fizyczna dzieci wiejskich. Studia i Monografie AWF we Wrocławiu 1993; 36, 81–91.
 
29.
Wolański N. Rozwój biologiczny człowieka Podstawy auksologii, gerontologii i promocji zdrowia, PWN, Warszawa 2005.
 
eISSN:2084-6312
ISSN:1505-7054