REVIEW PAPER
Bath houses at the turn of the 19th to 20th centuries in the process of improving public health in the cities of Silesia – selected examples
 
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1
Katedra Podstaw Fizjoterapii, Instytut Fizjoterapii, Politechnika Opolska Kierownik Katedry: dr hab. M. Migała, prof. PO
2
Katedra Biosystematyki, Uniwersytet Opolski, ul. Oleska 22, 45-052 Opole Kierownik Katedry: prof. dr hab. J. Lis
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Krzysztof Spałek   

Samodzielna Katedra Biosystematyki Uniwersytetu Opolskiego ul. Oleska 22, 45-052 Opole tel. 77-401-60-10
 
Med Srod. 2017;20(3):60–65
 
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
In the 19th century in Silesia there was a rapid development of industry. As a result, intense urbanization processes took place and large agglomerations appeared.mThose processes had never before been that quick or largescale. The explosion of industry supported people migration and uncontrolled spread of various diseases. Workmin the industry, in poor sanitary and hygienic conditions, had a negative impact on the health condition of city residents. Underequipped or missing sanitary units, especially in hastily created and crowded working-class districts, poor life conditions, and undernutrition were the reasons for many hygienic problems and various epidemics. Preventive actions carried out by governments aimed at improving sanitary conditions and the level ohygiene among people. Construction of public bath houses was one of the means against growing epidemiological problems. First public bath houses in Europe were built in England and Prussia, where Silesia was industrially the most rapidly developing area. The main feature of public bath houses built in Silesia in the 19th century was their multifunctionality – buildings were divided into sectors for males and females, they had showers, baths, washing rooms and, later, larger and smaller swimming pools. Public bath houses in Katowice, Wrocław, Prudnik, and Zabrze are the most interesting examples in Silesia.
 
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